Please answer one of the following:
- 1 Can The European Model (of Soft Power & Development) be Exported to other States and Regions e.g., AU (African Union) and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)?
- 2 Explain the Copenhagen Criteria, and what effects it has had on the diplomatic approach of the European Union since the 1990s.
- 3 By providing examples, in your opinion, was the Lome IV Agreement and the European Initiative for the Development of Human Rights (EIDHR) successful in democratizing and restructuring the rule of law in the global south?
- 4 Do core EU Member states purposefully turn a blind eye on the treatment of refugees in its Central and Eastern member states?
- 5 Can Poland be sanctioned by the EU?
- 6 What are your predictions for the up and coming European Elections? Will populism prevail? And what are some of the greatest challenges influencing the transition toward or against populism? For greater info, reference: EU ELECTIONS
only 1 of the 6 questions.
students responses examples:
5. As explained in the article titled, “What Can the EU Do to Punish Poland?” there are limited options regarding the sanctioning of Poland by the European Union. In specific, as specified in Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union, there must be a formal warning prior to the imposing of the sanction. Further, said warning “requires a four-fifths majority of the European Council” (“What Can the EU Do to Punish Poland?”, 2017). This ultimately would send a strong message regarding the state of the breach, ideally pushing for compliance from the violating party. However, if said compliance does not take place, the sanction itself then “requires the unanimous backing of all member states” (“What Can the EU Do to Punish Poland?”, 2017). Should the EU proceed in the above manner – given the rulings are in alignment with the written requirements, Poland can and very well may be sanctioned by the EU.
“What Can the EU Do to Punish Poland?” The Economist, The Economist Newspaper, 29 July 2017, www.economist.com/europe/2017/07/27/what-can-the-eu-do-to-punish-poland.
Can The European Model (of Soft Power & Development) be Exported to other States and Regions e.g., AU (African Union) and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)?
We live in very challenging times especially with the rise of globalization. Europe as a continent has had a completely different system of development from Africa and Asia. The aspects of colonialism, technology, culture and tradition play a significant role in the way the country’s institutions are established. “Each society functions with a set of economic and political rules created and enforced by the state and the citizens collectively. Economic institutions shape economic incentives: the incentives to become educated, to save and invest, to innovate and adopt new technologies, and so on. It is the political process that determines what economic institutions people live under, and it is the political institutions that determine how this process works.” (Acemoglu 55) Despite the end of colonialism half a century earlier, developing countries still face problems that result in barely any advancements. Though inequality is not a new occurrence, it has advanced in the ways it affects developing countries. It may have lifted about 1 billion people out of extreme poverty but worsened the quality of life. Karl Marx best described this situation as the divide between the owners of the means of production and the working class. With developed countries establishing the rules, laws, organizations and investment, how are developing countries going to economically prosper? The trade rules imposed by rich countries make it much harder for poor countries to get out of poverty. The EU specifically has ignored the promotion of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. Its development policy mainly focused on economic cooperation. An example of this is the Washington Consensus, it was unsuccessful because it implemented this “One size fits all” standard but neglected to focus on issues affecting the countries the most such as education, infrastructure, the rise of dictators etc. I feel as though while trying to implement democracy, it is for their own benefit rather than the country’s development. Additionally, while the EU countries often try to compensate by providing aid, about 130 billion dollars each year. On the other hand multinational corporations are taking about 900 billion dollars in revenue. Furthermore, poor countries are paying about 600 million dollars in debt on loans over and over again. This actively demonstrates that the wealth gap is never getting smaller. So I don’t believe the European model of development could work for other states just based on the difference in history, culture, technology, political and economic institutions.
Börzel, Tanja A, and Thomas Risse. “One Size Fits All! EU Policies for the Promotion of Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law.”
Why Nations Fail, by Daron Acemoglu, Random House, 2012, pp. 50–55.