Hlsc 720-discussion 8-reply 2 | HLSC 720 – Critical Infrastructure: Vulnerability Analysis and Protection | Liberty University

The thread must be a minimum of 200-400 words. MINIMUM OF TWO SOURCES BESIDES THE TEXTBOOK. Must cite at least 2 sources in addition to the Bible.

TEXTBOOK: Bennett, B. T. (2018). Understanding, assessing, and responding to terrorism: Protecting critical infrastructure and personnel (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 9781119237785.


WMD Risk Analysis and Protection Processes  WMD and CBRNE attacks represent significant challenges for protecting critical infrastructure. Parnell et al. (2010) note that “the probability of success involves many factors including the probability of obtaining the agent and the probability of detection during attack preparations and execution” (p. 8), which makes a WMD attack different than an attack implementing conventional methods. Furthermore, a WMD attack could cause many casualties, which would influence and alter the risk analysis and protection processes. There is also a larger threat from cascading effects that could reach each sector of critical infrastructure.     Biological Agents  Biological agents are one of the most dangerous and difficult WMD threats to contend with. There are numerous types of biological threats that can be deployed as WMDs, which include natural poisons, blood agents, viruses, Salmonella, botulism, anthrax plagues (Liberty, n.d.). According to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) (2023), “bioterrorism agents can be assigned into three categories, depending on how easily they can be spread and the severity of illness or death they cause” (para 1). Category A agents are deemed the highest risk and Category C agents are considered emerging threats for use as biological weapons.   Category A agents include anthrax, botulism, smallpox, plague, tularemia and the various types of viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg) and arenaviruses (Lassa, Marchapo) (MDH, 2023).   Category B agents include epsilon toxins, food safety threats, glanders, q fever, ricin, typhus fever, viral encephalitis (alphaviruses) and water safety threats (MDH, 2023).  Category C agents include emerging threats such as hantavirus and Nipah virus.   It is crucial to understand that biological agents pose a unique and deadly challenge due to their incubation periods, which can range from as little as 3 hours, or over a week. The various incubation can facilitate the development and deployment of biological agents and aid the attackers in carrying out their attacks, as well as aid in covering their trail and escaping from the attack area. From a threat analysis perspective, each stakeholder must have a reliable medical care plan in-place if a biological attack is likely. If an attack occurs, the following medical care management principles should be addressed:  Preventing the attack. Recognition of biological warfare injuries and signs/symptoms.3. Triage measures.4. EMT (Emergency Medical Treatment) 5. Decontamination operations. 6. Medical evacuation plan. 7. Specific patient care. Medical personnel must be familiar with signs and symptoms of potential casualties and must attempt to distinguish between a pathogen of natural origin and a biological warfare attack (Agarwal et al., 2004).  Christian Worldview  Matthew 7:13-14 (English Standard Version) fittingly states “enter by the narrow gate. For the gate is wide and the way is easy that leads to destruction, and those who enter by it are many. For the gate is narrow and the way is hard that leads to life, and those who find it are few.” Another relevant quote comes from Proverbs 24:27 (English Standard Version), which reads “Prepare your work outside; get everything ready for yourself in the field, and after that build your house.”  References  Agarwal, R., Shukla, S. K., Dharmani, S., & Gandhi, A. (2004). Biological warfare-an emerging threat. JAPI, 52(9), 733-738.  Bennett, B. T. (2018). Understanding, assessing, and responding to terrorism: Protecting critical infrastructure and personnel (2nd ed.).  Bioterrorism diseases. (2023). Minnesota Department of Health. Retrieved from https://www.health.state.mn.us/diseases/bioterrorism/btdiseases.html  Holy Bible (English Standard Version). https://www.openbible.info   Parnell, G. S., Smith, C. M., & Moxley, F. I. (2010). Intelligent adversary risk analysis: A bioterrorism risk management model. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 30(1), 32-48.