1 Sophie’s World Final exam Choose the best answer for each question: 1. According to Sophie’s World, HOW is the universe like a giant rabbit in a hat? a. Like a rabbit, the universe is warm and fuzzy. b. A rabbit is made of complex parts, and we so is the universe c. A magic trick is strange and mysterious, and so is the fact that we exist here in this universe d. A rabbit has a lot of offspring, and so do humans e. All of the above 2. What is the most important prerequisite to be a true philosopher? a. A good teacher b. A sense of wonder c. A good education d. A sense of humor e. None of the above 3. How were the explanations from before the Pre-Socratic philosophers different from the kinds of explanations that came after them? a. They were true b. They were false c. They believed they could understand the world using their reason d. They explained the world in terms of the activities of the gods and myths e. Nothing, their explanations were the same 4. The first philosopher and scientist in the western tradition was _____________. a. Aristophanes b. Socrates c. Thales d. Adam e. Homer 5. The philosophers in the period before Socrates’ time were called: a. Eleatics b. Ionians c. Pre-Socratics d. Platonists e. Thaleans 6. Heraclitus’ central belief was ______________. a. The only thing that is constant is change. b. Nothing ever changes c. Everything is water d. Everyone’s beliefs are true 2 7. Which statement would Parmenides agree with? a. You can’t step into the same river twice. b. Nothing ever changes. c. All is number. d. The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. 8. True or false. Democritus is the first person to suggest the existence of atoms. 9. Who were the travelling “wise guys” in Greece that would teach people rhetoric, and to argue persuasively? a. Eleatics b. Philosophers c. Sophists d. Socratics e. None of the above 10. True or false. If you think that knowledge can only be obtained only (or primarily) through reason, you are an empiricist. 11. True or false. Much of what we know about Socrates comes from the books that he left behind after his death. 12. What was the claim the Oracle made about Socrates? a. He would be a great leader of men b. He would be killed for his beliefs c. There isn’t anyone wiser than him d. He was the smartest man in the world e. He was smarter than a 5th grader 13. What was the style of Socrates method of teaching? a. Lecturing b. Writing books c. Singing songs d. Having a dialogue e. None of these 14. True or false. For Socrates, in order to know the meaning of something like “truth” or “beauty”, it is enough to have memorized the correct definition. 15. True or false. Plato is Socrates’s most famous student. 16. True or false. Because he was an empiricist, Plato’s philosophy was centered around developing scientific principles for observable phenomena. 3 17. Which is true of the Forms? a. They are eternal b. They are outside of space and time c. They are located in the human mind d. It is because of them that sensible objects have the features that they have e. All of the above 18. True or false. According to Plato, we can never have knowledge of anything that is in a constant state of change. 19. True or false. According to Plato, it is possible to have knowledge which later turns out to be false. 20. In the allegory of the Cave, the people chained in the cave correspond to whom? a. Philosophers who believe crazy things b. Priests who believe in the gods c. People who only believe what their senses tell them. d. Everyone e. People who have not seen “The Matrix” 21. What are the three parts of the soul, according to Plato? a. Body, mind, spirit b. Upper, middle, lower c. Inner, outer, middle d. Reason, emotions, appetites e. None of the above 22. True or false. Aristotle rejected Plato’s rationalistic approach to philosophy for a more empirical approach to philosophy. 23. Aristotle was: a. Interested in natural processes b. Europe’s first biologist c. Took a more scientific approach to philosophy d. Was known as “the great organizer” e. All of the above 24. True or false. Unlike Plato, Aristotle understood “form” to be something located inside of objects, and made them what they were. 25. According to Aristotle, everything in the world had purpose embedded in it. The Greek word for this is: a. Logos b. Telos c. Pogos d. Legos e. None of the above 4 26. According to Aristotle, what is it that makes humans different from other organisms? a. We have souls and animals do not b. Our capacity for feeling emotions c. We are rational, animals are not d. Nothing makes us different e. None of the above 27. True or false. Aristotle had a positive view of women. They were gentle and kind, and therefore more human than men. 28. What is the period of time dominated by Greek culture, after the time of Alexander the Great? a. Alexanderism b. Paganism c. Hellenism d. Sophism e. All of these 29. When asked by Alexander what he wanted, Diogenes asked him for: a. World Peace b. A position in his government c. To leave him alone d. To stop blocking the sun e. Free meals in the Agora 30. True or false. The Cynics believed it was important to remain involved in politics, but not to be corrupted by it. 31. What would a good Stoic do if they found out they had a terminal illness? a. Curse the gods b. Pray for a safe journey into the afterlife c. Remain unconcerned and live their life virtuously regardless d. Give up their possessions and be a full time philosopher while they still could e. All of the above 32. What is the Stoic approach to pain, suffering, and misfortune? a. Eat, drink, and be merry while you can b. Train oneself to endure the pain and misfortune c. Run away from the pain in books and meditation d. If we live well, we won’t suffer much pain e. Stoicism said nothing about pain or suffering 33. True or false. For Epicurus, pleasure is the greatest good, and pain is the greatest evil. 5 34. Which is NOT one of Aristotle’s four causes: a. Material b. Necessary c. Synthetic d. Final e. Efficient 35. The law of non-contradiction: a. states that nothing can be true and false at the same time b. is a necessary truth about reality c. All of the above d. None of the above 36. True or false. Descartes’ goal is to find a foundation on which all knowledge can be built. 37. True or false. European culture has its roots in both the Semitic and the indo-European cultures. 38. The view that there are more than one God/gods: a. Monotheism b. Pantheism c. Polytheism d. Atheism e. Judaism 39. The culture that was the ancestors of the Germans, Greeks, Celts. a. Indo-European b. Semitic 40. Which culture tended towards polytheism, sight as the primary sense, and a cyclical view of history? a. Indo-European b. Semitic 41. Which culture tended towards monotheism, a linear view of history, and hearing as the primary sense? a. Indo-European b. Semitic 42. Which one of these philosophers was not alive in the middle ages? a. Aristotle b. St. Augustine c. Thomas Aquinas d. Hildegard of Bingen 6 43. What does the “Renaissance” mean? a. The age of Reason b. Time after the middle ages c. Rebirth d. Time of Great things e. Time of awesomeness 44. True or false. One of the main ideas of the Renaissance was the idea that man was infinitely great and valuable. 45. Which of these trends were parts of the Renaissance? a. Individualism b. Humanism c. The worship of genius d. Boundless optimism e. All of the above 46. What was significant about Nicolai Copernicus? a. He discovered the force of gravity b. He discovered that the earth was at the center of the universe c. He discovered gun powder d. He claimed that the earth was not the center of the Universe e. None of the above 47. The idea that the earth revolves around the sun is called: a. Geocentric model b. Heliocentric model c. Paleocentric model d. Solar model 48. Who first noticed that Jupiter had moons which revolved around it? a. Kepler b. Newton c. Galileo d. Descartes e. None of the above 49. What does the word “baroque” mean? a. Broken b. Old c. Irregularly shaped d. Shiny and new e. None of the above 7 50. If someone tells you “memento mori”, they are telling you: a. Remember the Alamo b. Remember the happy times c. Long live the Queen d. Remember that you must die e. None of the above 51. One of the main symbols of the Baroque period was: a. The cemetery b. The theater c. The ocean d. The city 52. Isaac Newton is generally considered to be the greatest scientist of all time. Why? a. He discovered the force of gravity b. He proved that gravity is a universal force c. He formulated the laws of motion d. The proved that the same laws governed both the heavens and earth. e. All of the above 53. What did Descartes believe could not be doubted? a. he does not exist b. he is not being deceived c. he exists d. he is dreaming e. none of the above 54. Descartes argues against trusting the senses on the grounds that _____. a. His mother told him he has no sense b. they sometimes deceive him c. God allows sensory deception d. sense perception give us clear and distinct knowledge e. none of the above 55. Berkeley asserts that existing and perceiving are _____________. a. Both illusions b. One and the same thing c. Two different things d. Both are non-existent e. None of the above 8 56. Berkeley believes that sensible things cannot exist except in _____. a. a mind b. absolute existence c. material substance d. a material universe 57. What was Locke’s view about how the mind perceives the world called? a. Idealism b. Representative Realism c. Nihilism d. Lockeanism e. none of the above 58. According to Locke, when we come into the world, what do we know? a. we know that we are a thinking thing b. we have knowledge of time and space and causality c. nothing, we are a “blank slate” d. we know everything, but have forgotten that we know it 59. Which of these are primary qualities? a. weight, motion, and number b. smell, color, taste, etc. c. both of the above d. none of the above 60. Which of these are “secondary qualities”? a. weight, motion, and number b. smell, color, taste, etc. c. both of the above d. none of the above 61. According to Locke, when we touch, taste, or smell things in the world, we are experiencing… a. Primary qualities b. Secondary qualities c. Ideas d. Nothing 62. Which statement would Berkeley agree with? a. The physical world exists b. Nothing really exists c. Existence is really only perception of secondary qualities d. All we can really know are primary qualities e. All of the above 9 Match the phrase with the philosopher: a. Descartes b. Berkeley c. Hume d. Locke e. Kant 63. “Esse is percipi” 64. “nothing exists in the mind, that was not first in the senses” 65. Cogito ergo sum 66. Matters of fact 67. Categories of the understanding 68. Hume believed that man has two different types of perceptions, these are… a. “good” impressions and “bad” impressions b. “real” and “imaginary” impressions c. “impressions” and “ideas” d. “thoughts” and “concepts” 69. Hume was critical of which of these concepts… a. the self b. causality c. God d. all of the above e. none of the above 70. True or false. One of the main ideas of the Enlightenment was to educate (enlighten) the people, in order to create a better society. 71. What was another term for the period known as the Enlightenment? a. the Age of Machines b. the Age of Ideas c. the Age of Reason d. the Age of Aquarius 72. Which one of these was not one of the main ideas of the Enlightenment? a. opposition to authority b. rationalism c. cultural optimism d. human rights e. all of these were main ideas of the Enlightenment 10 73. True or false. Rousseau thought that our problems resulted from not enough reason and being too emotional. We need to be more logical, rational. 74. What did Kant call his new ideas about the interaction between the mind and the world? a. Copernican Revolution of the mind b. Causal reification c. Hegelian institution of the brain d. Cogito ergo sum 75. For Kant, what can’t know anything about: a. The world as it appears to us. b. the “Ding an sich” (things as they are outside of our perceptions) c. my own mind d. our perceptions 76. Kant’s formulation of the universal moral law is called: a. Ten commandments b. Golden rule c. Categorical Imperative d. Situational hypothesis 77. Which is a formulation of the Categorical Imperative? a. The Ten Commandments b. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you c. Never treat others simply as a means, but always as an end d. Do what thou wilt is the whole of the law e. If it feels good, do it 78. Which word was not one of the catchwords of Romanticism? a. feeling b. imagination c. experience d. Reason e. all of the above 79. True or false. Kant found a compromise between the claims of the empiricists and the claims of the rationalists. 11 80. What did Kant call the various ways that the mind organizes and filters sensory data? a. Forms b. Patterns of data c. Categories of the Understanding d. Synthetic distinctions 81. True or false. The Romantics longed for bygone eras, distant cultures, or places like old ruins, Twilight, or Night. 82. True or false. The Romantics saw a “divine ego” in nature, that everything was an expression of the “World Spirit”. 83. What was one of the features of Hegel’s philosophy that distinguished him from his predecessors such as Descartes, Spinoza, Hume and Kant? a. His emphasis on poetry as a way to express philosophical truths b. His emphasis on God c. there are no “eternal truths”, no timeless reason d. He never wrote anything down 84. True or false. For Hegel, reason is a dynamic process; therefore truth must be understood as coming from a certain time and a certain place. 85. For Hegel, history is: a. Pointless b. moving towards greater chaos and disorder c. not something philosophers should worry about d. moving towards greater rationality and purpose 86. What are the steps in Hegel’s dialectical pattern governing history? a. the good, the bad, and the ugly b. problem, solution, reaction c. thesis, antithesis, synthesis d. set, point, match 87. True or false. Kierkegaard was more interested society and groups of people rather than individuals. 88. True or false. Kierkegaard thought that Hegel’s “objective truths” were irrelevant to the personal life of the individual. Really important truths are personal. 12 89. What was the main cause of change in society, according to Marx? a. philosophy b. spiritual beliefs c. economic forces d. randomness, chaos 90. Marx said that societies are all composed of two parts; these were the _________ and the _________. a. basis; superstructure b. foundation; super-foundation c. top; bottom d. inner; outer 91. According to Marx, which of these groups have struggled against one another? a. Slaves; masters b. Serfs; nobles c. Workers; Bosses d. All of the above e. None of the above 92. The process of Darwin’s theory of evolution is known as: a. Dog-eat-dog b. Original Species c. Survival of the fittest d. The Galapagos effect e. Atheism 93. What is the view that blends Darwin’s theories with genetics? a. Super Darwinism b. Evolution c. Neo-Darwinism d. Intelligent Design e. None of the above 94. True or false. Marx believed that the contradictions inherent in Capitalism will cause it to collapse. 95. True or false. Through evolution, creatures are constantly getting better and better. 13 Match the phrase with the philosopher: a. Sigmund Freud b. Hegel c. David Hume d. Kant e. Karl Marx 96. “A specter is haunting Europe—the spectre of Communism.” 97. “Two things fill my mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe, the more often and the more intensely the reflection dwells on them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me.” 98. Thesis/antithesis/synthesis 99. “If we take in our hands any volume…let us ask, does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quanitity or number?” No. “Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of facts and existence?” No. commit it then to the flames, for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion.” 100. Ego/Superego/Id
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